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 (10) Arsi

1. General Breed Information

Species: 

Cattle

Breed Name/Strain :

Arsi

Common Name/Synonym:

Arusi

Breed Group Name:

Large East African Zebu 

Subgroup Information:

Abyssinian Shorthorned Zebu

Group Origin:

Zebu cattle (Bos indicus), with their characteristic hump and pendulous dewlap, are known to have descended from the secondary cattle domestication in the arid areas of the ‘Fertile Crescent’ about 5000 BP (Payne and Wilson, 1999). Available archaeological records indicate that they are the most recent types of cattle to be introduced into Africa. Recent molecular genetic as well as archaeological evidences (Hanotte et al., 2002; Marshall, 2000) also showed that the introduction of Zebu cattle into Africa centred in East Africa rather than though the land connection between Egypt and the Near East. Zebu are known to be better than the Humpless cattle in regulating body temperature (hence lower body water requirements). Their hardened hooves and lighter bones enable them to endure long migrations. These adaptive attributes have facilitated their importation and spread by Indian and Arabian merchants across the Red Sea to drier agro-ecological regions of the Horn of Africa (Loftus and Cunningham, 2000). The Large East African Zebu breeds of cattle, like the present-day Boran of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia, and the Butana and Kenana of the Sudan are very similar morphologically to the zebu breeds of Asia. Mainly pastoral communities in the Horn of Africa maintain them. 

Breed Origin :

Descended from the recent introductions of zebu into Africa from West Asia. Probably developed from a group of small Shorthorned Abyssinian Zebu by the highland Oromo people. 

Main Location:

Found in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Arsi, Shewa, Bale, Sidamo and Harar

Special Characteristic:

Small compact animals, with thin prominent dewlap, and small short horns; mainly kept for draught and are poor milkers; they are extremely active and often have very aggressive temperament. 

2.Detailed Trait Data

2.1 Adult Live Weight (kg)

No.

Sex

Mean

SD

Sample Size

Trait Value

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

Overall

236

 

337

 

 

 

(1059)

2

Female

 

29

 

Range: 232-245

 

 

(1213)

3

Unspecified

192.075

 

32

 

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(At the beginning of the study)

(1884)

4

Overall

 

 

 

Range: 200 - 250

Asella livestock farm in the Arsi Administrative Region of Ethiopia.

On government farm

(2003)

2.2 Age at First Parturition (months)

No.

Mean

SE

Sample Size

Trait Value

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

32.8

0.9

90

 

Asella Livestock Farm, in the Arsi Administrative Region of Ethiopia.

On government farm.

(2003)

2

34.4

 

62

 

 

 

(1059)

3

 

 

 

Range: 42-48

 

 

(1013)

4

32.82

0.87

90

 

Asella livestock farm in Arsi Administrative Region, Ethiopia.

Farm mamagement

(1212)

2.3 Average Daily Gain (gm)

No.

Sex

Mean

Sample Size

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

Unspecified

566

8

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(After 73 days on feed supplement)

(1884)

2

Unspecified

554

8

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(After 101 days on feed supplement)

(1884)

3

Unspecified

589

8

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(After 129 days on feed supplement)

(1884)

4

Unspecified

613

8

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(After 157 days on feed supplement)

(1884)

2.4 Birth Weight (kg)

No.

Sex

Mean

Sample Size

Trait Value

Management Condition

Source

1

Overall

21

 

 

Sedentary

(1056)

2

Overall

 

 

Average: 21

 

(1013)

3

Female

21.5

49

 

 

(1059)

2.5 Carcass Weight (kg)

No.

Cold/Hot

Sex

Mean

Sample Size

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

Cold

Unspecified

111.4

8

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(After 73 days on feed supplement )

(1884)

2

Cold

Unspecified

119.7

8

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(After 101 days on feed supplement)

(1884)

3

Cold

Unspecified

141.3

8

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(After 129 days on feed supplement)

(1884)

4

Cold

Unspecified

154.7

8

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(After 157 days on feed supplement)

(1884)

2.6 Cell Volume (MCV)

No.

Sex

Age

Mean

Location of Study

Source

1

Male

8 years

50

Asella Livesock farm in Arsi administrative region, Ethiopia.

(1212)

2.7 Coat Colour/Pattern

No.

Sex

Trait Value

Location of Study

Source

1

Overall

Usually red

Synthesized from different sources.

(1000)

2

Overall

Red with a black muzzle, are the predominate colours.

 

(1013)

3

Overall

The coat colour is variable: red, black, roan, white and combinations.

Synthesized from different sources.

(1215)

2.8 Dewlap

No.

Sex

Trait Value

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

Overall

Prominant but thin of skin.

Synthesized from different sources.

 

(1215)

2.9 Dressing Percentage (%)

No.

Sex

Mean

Sample Size

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

Unspecified

48.1

8

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(After 73 days on feed supplement )

(1884)

2

Unspecified

49

8

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(After 101 days on feed supplement)

(1884)

3

Unspecified

52.5

8

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(After 129 days on feed supplement)

(1884)

4

Unspecified

52.9

8

Ethiopia

Intensive management system(After 157 days on feed supplement)

(1884)

2.10 Ear Type

No.

Sex

Age

Trait Value

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

Overall

 

Erect

 

 

(1013)

2.11 Gestation Length (days)

No.

Mean

SE

Sample Size

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

276.27

0.48

354

Asella Livesock farm in Arsi administrative region, Ethiopia.

Farm management

(1212)

2

276.3

0.5

354

Asella livestock farm, in the Arsi administarative region on Ethiopia.

On government farm

(2003)

2.12 Haematocrit (PCV)(%)

No.

Sex

Age

Mean

Location of Study

Source

1

Overall

1 year

7.64

Asella Livesock farm in Arsi administrative region, Ethiopia.

(1213)

2.13 Horn Description

No.

Sex

Age

Trait Value

Location of Study

Source

1

Overall

 

Small and short

Synthesized from different sources.

(1215)

2

Overall

 

Small, usually crescent-shaped

 

(1013)

2.14 Lactation Length (days)

No.

Age

Mean

SE

Sample Size

Trait Value

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

 

 

 

233

Average: 272

 

 

(1059)

2

 

 

 

 

Average: 117

 

 

(1013)

3

 

175

25.3

45

 

Asella Research station in the Arsi region of Ethiopia.

On station.(Pre-partum group with 0.45kg supplementation.)

(2005)

4

 

172

23.9

49

 

The same as above

On station.(Control group with no supplementation.)

(2005)

5

 

179

15.4

141

 

The same as above

On station.

(2005)

6

 

189

23.5

47

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum group with 0.75kg supplementation.)

(2005)

7

 

169

23.2

48

 

The same as above

On station(Post-partum control group with no supplementation.)

(2005)

8

 

177

22.4

48

 

The same as above

On station.(Post-partum group with 0.25kg supplementation)

(2005)

9

 

190

25.2

45

 

The same as above

On station.(Post-partum group with 0.50kg supplementation.)

(2005)

10

 

185

39.6

17

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum and post-partum periods control group.)

(2005)

11

 

131

38

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Control pre-partum period and post-partum period with 0.25 kg supplementation.)

(2005)

12

 

137

23.1

57

 

The same as above

On station.(Season of calving was in short rany season between March and May.)

(2005)

13

 

202

39.8

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Control pre-partum and post-partum with 0.50kg supplementation.)

(2005)

14

 

144

38.3

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum supplementation with 0.45kg and no post-partum supplementation.)

(2005)

15

 

188

37.6

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.45kg supplementation and post-partum with 0.25kg supplementation. )

(2005)

16

 

194

43.2

13

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.45kg supplementation and post-partum with 0.5kg supplementation.)

(2005)

17

 

21

7.8

13

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.75kg supplementation and with out supplementation.)

(2005)

18

 

213

38

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.75 supplementation and post-partum with 0.25kg supplementation.)

(2005)

19

 

175

37.6

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.75kg supplementation and post-partum with 0.50kg supplementation.)

(2005)

20

 

231

33.8

20

 

The same as above

On station.(Year of calving 1968)

(2005)

21

 

167

21.1

75

 

The same as above

On station.(Year of calving in 1969.)

(2005)

22

 

213

42

13

 

The same as above

On station.(Year of calving in 1970.)

(2005)

23

 

105

33.5

33

 

The same as above

On station.(Year of calving between 1971 - 1972)

(2005)

24

 

228

24.8

41

 

The same as above

On station.(In dry season of calving between October and February.)

(2005)

25

Less than 3.6 years

207

30.1

41

 

The same as above

On station.

(2005)

26

Between 3.6 - 4.1 years

154

25.8

59

 

The same as above

On station.

(2005)

27

Greater than 4.1 years

175

32.5

41

 

The same as above

On station.

(2005)

2.15 Milk Composition (%)

No.

Constituent

Age

Mean

SE

Sample Size

Trait Value

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

Butter fat

Less than 3.6 years

29

4.9

41

 

Asella Research station in the Arsi region of Ethiopia.

On station.

(2005)

2

 

Between 3.6 - 4.1 years

24

4.7

59

 

The same as above

On station.

(2005)

3

Butter fat

Greater than 4.1 years

21

6

41

 

The same as above

On station.

(2005)

4

Butter fat

 

26

5.3

57

 

The same as above

On station.(Season of calving was in long rainy season between June and September.)

(2005)

5

Butter fat

 

26

4.1

41

 

The same as above

On station.(In dry season of calving between October and February.)

(2005)

6

Butter fat

 

17

5.8

33

 

The same as above

On station.(Year of calving between 1971 - 1972.)

(2005)

7

Butter fat

 

24

6.9

13

 

The same as above

On station.(Year of calving in 1970.)

(2005)

8

Butter fat

 

30

4

75

 

The same as above

On station.(Year of calving 1969)

(2005)

9

Butter fat

 

27

6.5

20

 

The same as above

On station.(Year of calving in 1968.)

(2005)

10

Butter fat

 

25

6.5

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.75kg supplimentation and post-partum with 0.50kg supplementation.)

(2005)

11

Butter fat

 

26

6.1

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.75kg supplimentation and post-partum 0.25kg supplementation.)

(2005)

12

Butter fat

 

33

7.6

13

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.45kg supplementation and post-partum 0.5kg supplementation.)

(2005)

13

Butter fat

 

27

6.8

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.45kg supplementation and post-partum with 0.25kg supplementation.)

(2005)

14

Butter fat

 

17

8.3

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.45kg supplementation and no postpartum supplementation.)

(2005)

15

Butter fat

 

25

7.4

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Control pre-partum and post-partum with 0.50kg supplementation.)

(2005)

16

Butter fat

 

23

4.6

43

 

The same as above

On station.(Season of calving was in short rainy season between March and May.)

(2005)

17

Butter fat

 

178

38.8

13

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-pareum with 0.75kg supplimentation and postpartum with out supplementation.)

(2005)

18

Butter fat

 

25

8.7

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Control pre-partum period and post-partum with 0.25kg supplimentation.)

(2005)

19

Butter fat

 

24

7.2

17

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum and pot-partum period control group.)

(2005)

20

Butter fat

 

28

4.3

45

 

The same as above.

On station.(Post-partum group with 0.50kg supplementation.)

(2005)

21

Butter fat

 

26

4.3

48

 

The same as above

On station.(Post-partum group with 0.25kg supplementation.)

(2005)

22

Butter fat

 

21

4.6

48

 

The same as above

On station.(Post-partum control group with no supplementation.)

(2005)

23

Butter fat

 

24

4

47

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum group with 0.75kg supplementation.)

(2005)

24

Butter fat

 

25

2.8

141

 

The same as above

On station.

(2005)

25

Butter fat

 

26

4.6

45

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum group with 0.45kg supplimentation.)

(2005)

26

Butter fat

 

24

4.8

49

 

The same as above

On station.(Control group with no supplementation.)

(2005)

27

Butter fat

 

 

 

 

Range: 5.4-5.8

 

 

(1213)

2.16Mortality (%)

No.

Observation Period (age)

Sex

Trait Value

Source

1

Adult

Overall

Average: 12%

(1013)

2.17 Parturition Interval (days)

No.

Mean

SD

SE

Sample Size

Trait Value

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

410.68

 

9.27

175

 

Assella livestock farm in Arsi Administrative Region, Ethiopia.

Farm management

(1212)

2

439

 

 

202

 

 

 

(1059)

3

 

 

 

 

Average: 395

 

 

(1013)

4

410.7

 

9.3

175

 

The same as above

On government farm.

(2003)

2.18 Parturition Percentage (%)

No.

Age

Mean

Management Condition

Source

1

 

54

 

(1013)

2.19 Postpartum Period (days)

No.

Age

Mean

SD

SE

Sample Size

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

 

134.1

 

9.1

175

Asella livestock farm, in the Arsi Administrative region of Ethiopia.

On government farm.

(2003)

2.20 Red Blood Cell Count (mm3)

No.

Sex

Age

Mean

Trait Value

Location of Study

Source

1

Overall

Adult

 

Range: 5.6-8.7

Asella Livesock farm in Arsi administrative region, Ethiopia.

(1212)

2

Overall

At birth

5.44

 

Asella Livesock farm in Arsi administrative region, Ethiopia.

(1212)

2.21 Total Milk Yield/Offtake (lts)

No.

Age

Mean

SD

SE

Sample Size

Trait Value

Location of Study

Management Condition

Source

1

 

 

 

 

 

Average: 132

 

 

(1013)

2

 

809

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1059)

3

 

 

291

 

 

Range: 224-500

 

 

(1213)

4

 

258

 

31.7

141

 

Asella Research station in the Arsi region of Ethiopia.

On station.

(2005)

5

 

276

 

52.1

45

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum period with 0.45 kg supplementation.)

(2005)

6

 

279

 

48.4

47

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum period with 0.75kg supplementation.)

(2005)

7

 

218

 

49.2

49

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum period control group with no supplementation.)

(2005)

8

 

228

 

47.9

48

 

The same as above.

On station.(Post-partum period control group with no supplementation.)

(2005)

9

 

259

 

46.2

48

 

The same as above

On station.(Post-partum period control group with 0.25 kg supplementation.)

(2005)

10

 

286

 

52

45

 

The same as above

On station.(Post-partum period with 0.50kg supplementation.)

(2005)

11

 

255

 

81.5

17

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum and post-partum period control group.)

(2005)

12

 

150

 

78.3

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum period control group and post-partum with 0.25kg supplementation.)

(2005)

13

 

249

 

82

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Control pre-partum and post-partum with 0.50kg supplementation.)

(2005)

14

 

196

 

47.6

57

 

The same as above

On station.(Season of calving was in long rainy season batween June and September.)

(2005)

15

 

173

 

79

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.45kg supplementation and no post-partum supplementation.)

(2005)

16

 

309

 

77.6

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.45kg supplementation and post-partum with 0.25kg supplementation.)

(2005)

17

 

346

 

89.1

13

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.45kg supplementation and post-partum with 0.5kg supplementation.)

(2005)

18

 

254

 

80

13

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.75kg supplementation and post-partum with out supplementation.)

(2005)

19

 

264

 

77.4

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.75kg supplementation and post-partum with 0.50kg supplementation.)

(2005)

20

 

318

 

78.2

16

 

The same as above

On station.(Pre-partum with 0.75 supplementation and post-partum with 0.25kg supplementation.)

(2005)

21

 

313

 

69.7

20

 

The same as above

On station.(Year of calving in 1968.)

(2005)

22

 

270

 

43.5

75

 

The same as above

On station.(Year of calving in 1969.)

(2005)

23

 

298

 

86.6

13

 

The same as above

On station.(Year of calving in 1970)

(2005)

24

 

149

 

69.1

33

 

The same as above

On station(Year of calving between 1971 - 1972.)

(2005)

25

 

352

 

51.2

41

 

The same as above

On station.(In Dry season of calving, between October and February.)

(2005)

26

 

225

 

51

43

 

The same as above

On station.(Season of calving was in short rainy season between March and May.)

(2005)

27

Less thant 3.6 years

354

 

62.1

41

 

The same as above

On station.

(2005)

28

3.6 - 4.1 years

185

 

53.2

59

 

The same as above

On station.

(2005)

29

Greater than 4.1 years

234

 

67

41

 

The same as above

On station.

(2005)

2.22 White Blood Cell Count (mm3)

No.

Sex

Age

Mean

SD

SE

Location of Study

Source

1

Female

>6years

7.24

 

 

Asella Livesock farm in Arsi administrative region, Ethiopia.

(1222)

2

Male

6 years

5.42

 

 

 

(1222)

 

3.Summarized Trait Data

1. Age at First Parturition (months)

Sex

Average

N

Maximum

Minimum

 

33.61

2

34.40

32.82

2. Dressing Percentage (%)

Sex

Average

N

Maximum

Minimum

Unspecified

50.63

4

52.90

48.10

3. Gestation Length (days)

Sex

Average

N

Maximum

Minimum

 

276.29

2

276.30

276.27

4. Lactation Length (days)

Sex

Average

N

Maximum

Minimum

 

172.84

25

231.00

21.00

5. Parturition Interval (days)

Sex

Average

N

Maximum

Minimum

 

420.13

3

439.00

410.68

6. Total Milk Yield/Offtake (lts)

Sex

Average

N

Maximum

Minimum

 

278.04

27

809.00

149.00

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